Type 2 Diabetes in African Americans
Type 2 Diabetes definition
Diabetes is a disease in which the body has problems producing or using insulin, a hormone needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy. Compared to the general population, African Americans are disproportionately affected by diabetes:
• 4.9 million (an increase from 3.7 million in 2007), or 18.7% of all African Americans, aged 20 years or older, also have diabetes.
• African Americans are 1.8 times more likely to have diabetes as non Hispanic whites. • 25 percent of African Americans between the ages of 65 and 74 have diabetes.
• 1 in 4 African American women over 55 years of age has diabetes. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk for a number of serious, sometimes life-threatening complications, and certain populations experience an even greater threat. Good diabetes management can help reduce your risk; however, many people are not even aware that they have diabetes until they develop one of its complications.
• Blindness. African Americans are almost 50 percent as likely to develop diabetic retinopathy as non-Hispanic whites.
• Kidney Disease. African Americans are 2.6 to 5.6 times as likely to suffer from kidney disease with more than 4,000 new cases of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) each year.
• Amputations. African Americans are 2.7 times as likely to suffer from lower-limb amputations. Amputation rates are 1.4 to 2.7 times higher in men than women with diabetes.
• Heart Disease and Stroke. Heart disease and stroke account for about 65 percent of deaths in people with diabetes. Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates about 2 to 4 times higher than adults without diabetes.
The risk for stroke is 2 to 4 times higher and the risk of death from stroke is 2.8 times higher among people with diabetes.
More black people die from diabetes and high cholesterol than any other race of people because of eating Soul Fool and High Cholesterol foods.
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes – type 2; Adult-onset diabetes
Causes of Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas stops producing enough insulin. Exactly why this happens is unknown, although excess weight and inactivity seem to be contributing factors. Insulin is a hormone that comes from the pancreas, a gland situated just behind and below the stomach.
When you eat, the pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. As insulin circulates, it acts like a key by unlocking microscopic doors that allow sugar to enter your cells.
Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.
Glucose — a sugar — is a main source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues. Glucose comes from two major sources: the food you eat and your liver. After intestinal digestion and absorption, sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream.
Normally, sugar then enters cells with the help of insulin. The liver acts as a glucose storage and manufacturing center. When your insulin levels are low — when you haven’t eaten in a while, for example — the liver metabolizes stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level within a normal range.
LECTURE BY DR. AFRIKA.
High blood sugar levels can cause several symptoms, including: • Blurry vision • Excess thirst • Fatigue • Frequent urination • Hunger • Weight loss